Structural Heat-up and Fire Engulfment Studies


ENGULF was originally developed in association with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), for research into fire engulfment and Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosions (BLEVE) issues.


ENGULF is designed to predict the temperature and pressure time history of pressure vessels engulfed in flame. Calculations include the operation of a pressure relief device, where specified, blowdown valve where appropriate and the degradation of the structural strength of the vessel due to the intense heating. Based on the internal pressure rise and the time history of the structural strength of the vessel wall, a time to vessel rupture and a pressure at rupture are predicted.



SHARC (Structure Heat And Response Code) is used to investigate the response of the selected structures in isolation to fire and thermal radiation loading. SHARC is a heat transfer code which is designed to model the heat up of a conductive structure exposed to fire (flame impingement or radiation). It includes convective and radiative terms and includes both natural and forced convection calculations for cooling fluids (atmosphere) together with a simple treatment of thermal insulation against the fire if appropriate.


SHARC has been used in the past to determine the time variation of the temperature of vessel structures when subjected to engulfment from an impinging jet fire. Vessel failure can be assumed to occur at a temperature where the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) for the steel reduces below the hoop stress for the vessel wall which is calculated based upon the vessel operating pressure.

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